Standerd Dimensional Requirements Of Building Componengts
The responsible authorities of a country establish the standard dimensions for all components of a building and provide guidelines regarding minimum sizes and other regulations to be followed during the design of a structure.
Dimensional Standards Of Building Components
The basic components of a building structure include footings, columns, beams, slabs, lintels, doors, windows, sills, D.P.C. (Damp Proof Course), filling up the earth, constructing a parapet wall, and more. These elements are essential for the construction and overall integrity of a building.
1. Depth of Foundation
The minimum foundation depth is kept at 1 meter below ground level to avoid weathering impacts and improve stability.The foundation’s width should be such that soil stress is kept within its safe bearing capacity.When a substantial number of footings are required, it is advisable to maintain an equal depth for each footing as much as possible.
2.The plinth of Buildings
The plinth or any other component of a structure must be positioned in proportion to the surrounding ground level to allow proper site drainage.A minimum of 450 mm must separate the plinth from the surrounding ground level. The height of the plinth can range from 300 to 600 mm, with 450 mm being the most common measurement.
3. The Thickness Of Damp Proof Course (D.P.C)
At the plinth level, D.P.C. is a layer of waterproofing material such as asphalt or waterproof cement.D.P.C. In brick masonry construction, a D.P.C. (Damp Proof Course) is typically installed at the plinth level. The D.P.C. has the same width as the brick wall and comes in various thicknesses ranging from 2.5 cm to 5 cm.
4. The Thickness Of Cement Concrete Floor
The cement concrete floor should have a minimum thickness of 100 mm and is usually topped with a floor finish. Common floor finishes include cement mortar or tiles, which typically have a thickness ranging from 10 mm to 20 mm.
5. Height Of Ceiling
The main rooms in a residential building typically have a ceiling height ranging from 3000 mm to 3600 mm.
6. Sizes of Rooms
1. Drawing Room or Living Room Minimum Dimension 4200 mm x 4800 mm
Drawing Room or Living Room Maximum Dimension 5800 mm x 7200 mm
2. Bed Room or Master Bed Room Minimum Dimension 3000 mm x 3600 mm
Bed Room or Master Bed Room Maximum Dimension 4200 mm x 4800 mm
3.Dining Room Minimum Dimension 3600 mm x 4200 mm
Dining Room Maximum Dimension 4200 mm to 4800 mm
4.Kitchen Minimum Dimension 2500 mm x 3900 mm
Kitchen Maximum Dimension 3000 mm x 3000 mm
5.Bath / WC Combined Minimum Dimension 1800 mm x 1800 mm
Bath / WC Combined Maximum Dimension1800 mm x 2500 mm
6. Bath (Separated) 1200 mm x 1800 mm –
7. W. C. (Separated) 1200 mm x 1200 mm –
8. Guest Room Minimum Dimension 3000 mm x 3600 mm
Guest Room Maximum Dimension3000 mm x 3000 mm
7. Sizes of Doors
The main entrance door of a residential building should have dimensions of 1000 mm by 2100 mm, while other doors must be at least 900 mm wide and 2000 mm tall.
For garage doors, the standard size is 2500 mm by 2300 mm. Single-leaf shutter doors for W.C. and bathrooms typically range from 600 mm to 750 mm in width and 1800 mm in height.
8. Sizes Of Windows
(i) Window width = 1/8 (width of room + height of room).
(ii) Glass area in windows should be 10% to 20% of the floor area of the room for good lighting.
(iii) For every 30 cubic meters of interior room space, it is recommended to have a minimum of one square meter of window area.
In general, the minimum size for a window is 750 mm by 1000 mm.
Weather Shed is another name for Chhajjas. This refers to a structure constructed above a window that protrudes outward from the face of the window.
Dimensional Standards for Chajja:
Chhajjas Length = Window Width + 0.15m Bearing on Both Sides
Width of Chhajjas = 0.45 m to 0.60 m
To ensure sufficient ventilation in a comfortable room, the size of the ventilator should be a minimum of 1000 mm by 500 mm.
For bath and toilet areas, the minimum recommended size is 450 mm by 300 mm, with a depth greater than 450 mm. However, it is important to note that compromising on privacy may be necessary in such cases.
11. Bathrooms And Water Closets
The minimum height of a bathroom ceiling or water closet should be 2.1 meters, measured from the floor surface to the lowest point of the ceiling. A bathroom must be at least 1.8 square meters in size and 1.2 meters wide.
The floor area of the water closet must be at least 1.1, and the width must be at least 0.9 m. When a bath and a water closet are combined, the floor space should be a minimum of 2.8 meters, with a minimum width of 1.2 meters.
The minimum width, minimum tread width, and maximum riser dimensions for staircases in different types of buildings are as follows:
Rise: 130 to 190 mm.
Rise: 125 to 150 mm.
Rise: 275 to 350 mm.
Rise: 250 to 300 mm.
These specifications outline the recommended dimensions for the rise component of stairs in each respective building type.
The thumb guidelines used to select a building’s rise and tread are as follows:
2T X R = 550 to 650
T x R = 39000 to 48000
The width of steps in residential structures is 900 mm, and in public buildings, it is 1000 mm.
(Total Floor Height / Riser Height) = Number of Risers
The number of treads = the number of risers -1
13. Lintel Beams
Lintels are typically constructed using reinforced concrete and are installed over openings in walls, such as doors and windows. The primary function of a lintel is to bear the load transmitted through these window and door openings. The thickness of R.C.C. lintel beams can vary from 100 to 250 mm, with 150 mm being the most commonly used dimension.
14. R.C.C. Roof Slab
Roofs are available in a variety of shapes, with flat and sloped roofs being the most prevalent. They are typically constructed using materials such as R.C.C., stone, tiles, and other options.
R.C.C. roof slabs generally have a thickness ranging from 100 to 150 mm, with 100 mm being the most commonly used dimension. On the other hand, sunshades are typically 25 to 50 mm thick.
15. Parapet Wall
The height of the parapet wall above the finished floor level should be no less than 0.60 meters and no more than 1.2 meters.
In residential buildings, the width of the verandah typically ranges from 1.8 to 3 meters. On the other hand, the width of the corridor varies between 0.8 and 1.2 meters.
Standerd Dimensional Requirements Of Building Componengts